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INFORMATION ABOUT SHOES
Shoes ; It is all kinds of footwear that protects against foreign materials and different weather conditions by cutting the direct contact of the feet with the ground, as well as completing the elegance.
There are many different types such as boots, boots, sandals, heels, sneakers and shoes. It generally consists of the lower part called ” base ” and the upper part called ” saya “. The sole is made using a more durable and thick material as the shoe is worn out in contact with the ground. The upper that covers the foot is made of a thinner material such as leather and fabric.
Shoe Sole Types
SOLE: It is one of the most important parts of the shoe. Because it has to be both durable and flexible. It does not deteriorate against temperature differences; The fact that it is very resistant to wear is the biggest advantage.
- CORNER: It is obtained from the combination of calf leather and various chemicals. It has the ability to breathe, it is affected by water.
- NEOLIT: It is a combination of compressed plastic, rubber and various chemicals. It has a non-breaking feature.
- THERMO RUBBER: It is formed by thermo rubber mixture. It is the base with the highest density and the most resistant to temperature.
- POLY URETHANE: It consists of poly urethane material.
- PVC: It is a base consisting of poly vinyl chloride. Various finishing processes can be given different colors and brightness.
- TERMO POLİ URETAN: It is a combination of poly urethane and thermo rubber with special injection system. It is light and non-slip.
- LATEX: It is produced with natural rubber and latex. It is the sole with the highest comfort feature.
- EVA: Polyurethane with the lowest density is used. It is light.
- Heel : Heel can be manufactured completely on the sole, as well as a section that is attached to the sole with screws and / or nails during the shoe manufacturing phase. It comes in various types and heights depending on the style of the shoe. Heel height is expressed in PONT. A pont is approximately 7 mm.
- BASE PRIMER: It is located between the sole and the outcrops, and ensures that the sole fits according to the foot shape and maintains its form. It is the most important piece that provides orthopedics with a specially blended plastic and steel support that provides flexibility.
Hides Used in Upper Production
- Screw: It is obtained from tanning (processing) of cattle, calf and horse skins with chrome salts. It is mainly used in most of winter shoes, military boots, fancy slippers and zennes.
- Oily Skin: The skin is matte, with thick screws. It has very little water permeability compared to the screw. It is used in winter shoes and boots.
- Glase: It is obtained by separating goat skins with chrome salts in various methods. It is used in high quality zenne, roller shoes (without lacing) shoes, zenne boots and upper of slippers.
- Rugan: It is obtained from big and small cattle skins. They are soft leather with high gloss appearance, finished with oily or synthetic lacquers.
- Suede: It is obtained by separating young cattle, calf, malach, goat, kid, sheep or lamb skins with chrome salt.
- Splitting Suede: It is the skin taken from the web layer by splitting the skin towards the side of the meat.
- Nubuck: It is leather with sanded skin. Nubuck is short-haired and tougher than suede.
- Lame and Dore: Lame is metallic silver, dore, manufactured leather dyed in metallic yellow color. Both types of leathers are used mainly in fancy zenne shoes.
- Nappa: It is processed more alive and full. Its pores are not as pronounced as Glase leather.
- Zik: Usually sheepskin is used. It is very thin and flexible, used as a garment.
- Florantic (Opening): The glaze of the leather is sanded and closed with paint. It has a very bright finish.
- Vegetal: They are completely natural or dyed leather treated with herbal tannins. It is used in making accessories. Color becomes darker during use
- Printed: After the upper membrane is rolled, the upper level of the skin is prepared on metal plates, and the skin is pressed at high pressure and heat.
- Cork: Used in soles, heels and sandals. Cork powder, rubber mixture, very light and thermal.
- They are thin, soft, elastic and smooth leather dyed in natural colors, obtained by tanning raw small cattle skins by various methods.
- The lining obtained from goat leathers are called Glase lining and those obtained from sheep are called Meşin, and those made from calf leather are called calf lining.
Function of Liner
- To be a protective buffer layer between the foot and upper.
- Ensuring that the shoes keep their shape,
- Moisture of the foot,
- Shaping the inner appearance of the shoe,
- The mirror (front), side (gamba) of the lining shoes and the floor (outcrops) where the foot is pressed are also used
Artificial Materials Used in Shoes
- The artificial material used as a face and lining on the upper of the shoe is made of two types of material as PVC and PU coating.
- The place of use is determined according to the ground on which the types of artificial materials are covered. Soil types; It is divided into two main groups as weaving and Non Woven. Coating is applied on this floor by methods such as coagulation, plastering and spraying.
Textile Materials Used in Shoes
- They are woven materials that are textile products used on the upper and lining of shoes.
- These materials produced as fabric are used according to the style of the shoe and in fashion. The fabrics are reinforced with reinforcement material to achieve the necessary strength. Sometimes fabrics are used to strengthen other leather and artificial materials.
- PILLOW FOAMS: It is a sponge placed under the mostra. It provides compliance with foot orthopedics. Flexible foam porous pillows are used in the sub-heel and mid-foot, which are gentle areas where the foot of the child completes its development.
- FORT: It is a reinforcing piece placed between the upper and the lining to keep the back upright and keep its shape.
- BOMBE: It is placed to maintain the shape of the toe of the shoe. The curved material made of plastic alloy takes the shape of the mold with heat and protects the toe shape and toes of the shoe.
- MOSTRA: It is the most important part where the foot placed on the base lining touches and feels comfort and comfort by pressing on it. According to the style of the shoe;
- Compressed sponge
- It is made from materials such as Latex.
Again according to the style of shoes;
- Anti static
- Air duct system
- Heel Gel
- Comfort is provided with features such as air-conditioned system.
ACCESSORIES: Various accessories are used according to the style of the shoe. Accessories; It consists of plastic, leather, artificial material, textile, stone, wood, bead, zinc and metal types.
- Weft buckle
- Stony ornamental buckles
- Illustrated logos
- Ornamental stitches
Chemical Adhesives Used in Shoes
- POLYCHLOROPRENE BASED (yellow drug): Saya , counts preparation and assembly insole used.
- POLYURETHANE BASED (base medicine): It is used in assembly (gluing the base with the upper).
- LATEX: Used for upper and upper preparation.
- SOLUTION: Used on upper.
- HOT-MELT: Polyamide : It is used for upper (bias and hemming).
- Polyester: It is used in assembly (assembly machine).
- Copoliester resin based pre-mounted Hotmelt adhesive.
Surface Adhesive Chemicals
- BASE WIPING WATER AND PRIMER: Used in the preparation of the base, the base prepares the surface for adhesion.
- FORT AND BOMBE ACTIVATION SOLVENT: Used to activate solvent active bombs and fort materials in assembly.
Finishing Chemicals Used in Shoes
- SURFACE CLEANING WATER: It is used to remove the silver pencil marks drawn during the upper sewing phase and to clean materials such as patent leather.
- EDGE AND SHADOW PAINTS: It is the material used in the process performed on the shoes for ornamentation and error hiding.
- OPENING, COMBUSTION AND POLISHING CANDLES: It is the process performed according to the material and style used in the shoe. It has skin pores filling, shine and / or ornamental properties.
- LIQUID POLISHING: It is the process performed according to the material and style used in the shoe. It makes the material bright.
- WATERPROOF LACQUER: It is a liquid substance sprayed or applied on the shoe to prevent water from entering the skin pores.